Acasă Jurnalul Bucurestiului Stiinta & Tehnica Acolo unde americanii au esuat chinezii au triumfat! Tunul electromagnetic al PLA

Acolo unde americanii au esuat chinezii au triumfat! Tunul electromagnetic al PLA

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Nava „Haiyang Shan“, având la bord un tun electromagnetic, a fost văzută în şantierul naval Wuchang din estul Chinei Foto: Asia Times

Mai multe fotografii apărute recent pe internet sugerează că armata chineză e în posesia unei arme noi: este vorba de un tun electromagnetic (tun EM) instalat pe o navă. Tunurile EM folosesc energia electromagnetică pentru a propulsa proiectilul, ceea ce le conferă viteza şi eficienţa unui tun, combinate cu raza de acţiune a unei rachete.

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Fotografiile distribuite pe Twitter arată că nava de debarcare pentru tancuri chinezească „Haiyang Shan“, cu indicativul 936, are o turelă specială instalată la prova – în locul turelei tunului antiaerian de 37 mm -, alături de care se află trei containere. Asemănător cu prototipul american Ţeava tunului are o lungime de 9-10 metri şi un diametru de 300-500 mm. Este un diametru de 2-3 ori mai mare decât cel obişnuit, ceea ce indică prezenţa unui tun EM, dat fiind că un tun naval convenţional de un asemenea calibru ar fi ineficient din cauza greutăţii obuzelor.

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Lucrurile se schimbă în cazul unui tun EM, pentru care o parte din acest diametru ar fi ocupată de şinele conductoare proiectate pentru a lansa un proiectil la viteze hipersonice. Containerele aflate în apropierea turelei constituie un alt indiciu: ele ar putea adăposti instalaţiile electrice necesare funcţionării tunului, ca de pildă generatoare şi condensatori. În ceea ce priveşte lungimea ţevii, ea corespunde cu cea a ţevii de la prototipul american de tun EM conceput de BAE Systems. Arma americană, cu o energie de 32 de megajouli, e proiectată să trimită proiectile de 10 kilograme, cu viteza Mach 7, la distanţe de până la 350 de kilometri.

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Calcule strategice Marina SUA intenţiona să instaleze prototipul tunului EM de la BAE pe nava USNS Trenton în 2016, dar proiectul a fost amânat din raţiuni bugetare şi iată că, aparent, chinezii au luat-o înainte. Spunem „aparent“ fiindcă analiştii militari, citaţi de Popular Science, sunt de părere că simpla apariţie a tunului electromagnetic pe o navă chineză nu înseamnă că el şi funcţionează. Însă dacă inginerii militari chinezi reuşesc să rezolve problemele tehnice complicate ridicate de durabilitatea materialelor, stocarea de energie şi ghidarea proiectilelor, pe scurt, dacă tunul EM devine funcţional, China s-ar afla în posesia unui arme capabile să schimbe regulile jocului şi echilibrul de forţe, în plan naval şi geostrategic.

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Abia acum portavioanele americane pot fi primite cum se cuvine in apele Chinei!

Articol original:

US dropped ball on Navy railgun development—now China is picking it up

Analysis of photos show a railgun system being installed on a Chinese amphibious ship.

Sean Gallagher

Photos posted by a Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) observer show what appears to be an electromagnetic railgun being affixed to a PLAN tank landing ship, the Haiyang Shan. The LST is being used to test the weapon because its tank deck can accommodate the containers for the gun’s control system and power supply, according to comments from a former PLAN officer translated by “Dafeng Cao,” the Twitter handle of the anonymous analyst.

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For nearly a decade, the US Navy’s Office of Naval Research (ONR) and various contractors worked to develop a railgun system for US ships. A prototype weapon was built by BAE Systems. Testing at the US Navy’s Naval Surface Warfare Center in Dahlgren, Virginia was deemed so successful that the Navy was planning to conduct more testing of the gun at sea aboard a Spearhead-class Joint High Speed Vessel (JHSV).  The program promised to deliver a gun that could fire projectiles at speeds over Mach 7 with a range exceeding 100 miles. The 23-pound hypervelocity projectile designed for the railgun flying at Mach 7 has 32 megajoules of energy—roughly equivalent to the energy required to accelerate an object weighing 1,000 kilograms (1.1 US tons) to 252 meters per second (566 miles an hour).

Further Reading

Navy prepares to take railgun to sea

But the program has been largely shelved because of the Department of Defense’s ongoing budget problems and the loss of interest at DOD’s Strategic Capabilities Office in funding further development. The continued “sequestration” of the DOD’s budget has forced the Navy and ONR to shift development focus away from the long-term goal of the railgun toward the more short-term goal of using the hypervelocity projectile (HPV) the railgun fires within more conventional US Navy gun systems.

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China has clearly been watching the US program with interest, and the PLAN reportedly began working on its own electromagnetic gun system about five years ago, according to Dafeng Cao’s ex-PLAN officer source. Now the PLAN is preparing to take its tests to sea, making the 20-year old Haiyang Shan the first ship to ever be armed with a railgun.

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The Haiyang Shan is part of China’s East Sea Fleet (and over the past two years a frequent visitor to the artificial islands being constructed by China in disputed waters of the South China Sea). It is not a terribly modern warship—but it does have the advantage of a large dry deck to accommodate the hardware needed to generate the high voltages required by a railgun.

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That dedicated power system is essential, because even more modern Chinese warships lack the electrical generation capacity to power a railgun. In fact, only the US Navy’s Zumwalt class destroyers have enough generation capacity to power one, as they were designed with future directed energy weapons in mind. While nuclear aircraft carriers certainly have reactor power, they don’t have the electrical distribution system needed.

Listing image by dafeng cao


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